What is the size of a micrometer?
To imagine what the size of a micrometer is, take a ruler and look as measuring one millimeter, now imagine this one millimeter divided by one thousand. Well, each of the divisions resulting measures a micrometer.
What is the size of a nanometer?
At first, we need to consider the small size of a nanometer. Imagine shrink your body in three dimensions by a factor of 1,000 – reducing it to the size of a small ant. Now, let us take that ant and shrink it further by a factor of 1,000 – which would reduce it to the size of a single red blood cell, which is the smallest cell of the human body. Finally, we shrink the cell again by a factor of 1,000 – that’s the size of a nanometer, essentially the size of a few atoms. By explicitly considering the atoms as fundamental building block, Richard Feynman was clairvoyant when he said that, there, was plenty of space.
What are the main applications of nanotechnology today?
Nanotechnology has already impact on numerous products, especially in the new food, medical devices, chemical coatings, test kits, personal health, sensors for security systems, water purification units for manned spacecraft, monitors for gaming of laptops and others.
There are three essential sectors:
Pursue development in microelectronics, especially for computers, but in significantly smaller scale.
Combining engineering at nanoscale with biology to manipulate living systems or to build biologically inspired materials at the molecular level.
Precisely control the morphology of substances nanoscale dimension or particles to produce nanostructured materials. By involving all these domains that overlap, the instruments measure and manipulate ultra-small structures, the nanoscale resolution microscopes.
What are the main advantages of the use of nanotechnology?
Technology is not the solution to everything. However, it can be very useful for solving many types of problems. Normally those wherein said conventional technology does not. Some examples: Green Chemistry, that consequent to the new attitude of humanity has prevailed in our laboratories and factories, finds in Nanoscience and its practical applications, the Nanotechnology, to support the new paradigm: LESS IS MORE. That is, the potentialization of the reactivity, obtained by the steep rise in the reaction area compared to the volume of material, requires, in most cases, LESS REAGENTS FOR THE SAME RESULTS!
When and how did the nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology as a concept was revealed by the Richard Feinman premonitory phrase, in 1954 in California when giving a lecture of physics, quoted “there is a plenty of room at the bottom”, and explaining its meaning “there is plenty of room down there,” referring to the intra atomic and intra molecular inaugurated the glimpse of humanity to the nanoscopic world.
The first work in which nanotechnology is contemplated as a theme, is explicitly of 1990 and its author was Eric Drexler recently been among us, in lectures in S. Paulo, on June 2008.
Where do we find the application of microcapsules and nanocapsules today?
The chapter reservoir of Nanoscience, represented by the NANOCAPSULES and the no less important MICROCAPSULES, their legitimate predecessors, are found in a multitude of products. Some example…
The 1st microcapsule reservoir is authored by Barret Green, in the 40s decade of the last century in the USA, and was aimed at making the NCR or NON CARBON REQUIRED PAPER, i.e., at the time known as “carbon paper carbonless”, or later the famous carbonless paper that has come to the present day, with numerous forms, including the very current credit card voucher which when signed on one side by the card signer, breaks microcapsules that reproduce the signature in another way.
Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics are the next on the list, historically and usage volumes.
Nowadays is very common and even trivial the antibiotic single dose, or daily dosages, in the past prior to advent of drug delivery system or DDS, or gradual release, or controlled release, doses separated by hours, for example, every six hours .
DDS is nothing more than microspheres / microcapsules containing the drug in minute quantities and when they break, under appropriate stimuli, they release a dose sufficient to maintain adequate levels of treatment.
Skin, hair, mucous membranes, armpits, etc., Unlikely to have any citizen on the face of the earth, into said the civilized world that did not use a shampoo, moisturizer, deodorant, toothpaste, deo colony, not to mention the today’s essential sunscreens. Countless renowned brands on five continents have used and abused the properties of prolonged skin permeation, “long lasting”, fixing, and many others, the inherent micro and nanocapsules that thanks to creative Marketing assume the most charming names like ” silicone pearls “, liposomes, nanosomes, thalaspheres, gradual action, ultra protection, continuous protection, and so on, enriching the names of a true legend that micro and nanoscience have become in our Civilization.